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A trust is a set of instructions to a Trustee contained in a legally enforceable document. The instructions deal with the following issues:
Do not do a trust because you are afraid of a probate. Probate is a relatively simple and painless procedure in Arizona. Do a trust because you are afraid of two probates. It becomes cost effective to do a living trust in lieu of two probates. In cases where there is out of state land, and land in Arizona, the decedent will face multiple probates.
Do a trust if you are leaving assets to a beneficiary who will blow them if he receives them outright.
Do a trust if you believe that a Trustee should stand in between your intended beneficiary and people who would charm or defraud that beneficiary out of his trust money.
Do a trust if you want to give a beneficiary income for life, with a remainder interest in a different beneficiary.
Do a trust if you want to plan effectively for the possibility of your own disability and you desire the accountability and the efficiency of a Trustee.
Do a trust if you are married and need to minimize estate taxes. There are two types of trusts that are particularly helpful in this regard. The first is called a "Credit Shelter Trust" or an "A-B-Trust" The second is called a Q-Tip Trust.
Most people who set up a Trust during their lifetime (hence the term "Living Trust") do so to avoid probate. The Trust succeeds in avoiding probate only if all otherwise probatable assets are retitled in the name of the Trustee of the Trust. Sometimes people establish a living Trust but don't get around to retitling all the assets into the Trust before they die. Sometimes they become incapacitated as the result of an accident and they then receive settlement proceeds which are probatable. So in order to put the Trustee in control of how assets move after death, one does a Will leaving all assets to the Trustee of the Living Trust. Such a Will is called a "Pour-Over Will" because it pours over into the Trust.
Corporate trustees rarely operate under a bond. If you are selecting an individual trust, you may afford the trust beneficiaries an added degree of protection by requiring that the trustee purchase a surety bond. They are readily available, but seldom used.
A person who sets up a trust is called either a Grantor, or a Settler or a Trustor. Let's use the term Grantor. In a revocable trust, the Grantor retains the right to revoke or amend the trust. The Grantor does not part with the incidents of ownership of the property that he has put into the trust. He is considered the "equitable owner" of the trust assets, despite the fact that the Trustee is considered the legal owner of the assets. For tax purposes, a person who has established a revocable trust has not given away the ownership of the property in the trust to anyone else.
In an irrevocable trust, the Grantor cannot revoke. The Grantor has parted with the incidents of ownership of the assets of the trust. He has no right to have the assets returned to his individual ownership. He is not considered the "equitable owner" of the assets. For tax purposes, a person who has established an irrevocable trust has given away the ownership of the property, unless other factors are present.
A simple, garden variety revocable living trust does not make the assets contained in the trust any less vulnerable to the cost of long term care.
Making a gift to an irrevocable trust which returns income to the Grantor may put the assets out of reach for ALTCS/Medicaid eligibility purposes, however, the making of the gift will result in certain eligibility penalties. Can a trust be a valuable Medicaid planning tool?
In the case of a married couple with liquid assets less than $160,000 and a house, a revocable living trust can dramatically increase the amount that the community spouse can retain as the nursing home spouse qualifies for ALTCS. A qualified Medicaid planning attorney has to explain how this favorable outcome is obtained.
An irrevocable trust which is designed to return all its income to the people making the trust can result in assets passing free of an ALTCS estate recovery claim. Such a trust can also preserve some important tax benefits for the transferees of the property.